Behavioural design is concerned with how design can shape and influence human behaviour. It covers domains such as health, sustainability, safety, social fabric, and even things like crime prevention.
Think of it this way: Imagine you want to get and stay in shape by going to the gym. What is the hardest part of going to the gym? The 'going' part. That takes a conscious decision you have to make every single time and is 100% dependent on self-discipline. Which is why most of us fail to maintain an active lifestyle.
Behavioural design eliminates the dependency of beneficial actions on conscious decision making and self-discipline, because the desired behaviour is embedded in the design.
The architect and/or urban planner designs his/her constructs in such a way that they enable, motivate or constrain certain predefined actions.
These actions promote physical and physical health, strengthen social fabric, facilitate the cross pollination of ideas and optimize productivity.
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